Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Roam If You Want To

Roam Industries

265 North Main Street
Monticello, UT, 84535

Phone: (435) 590-2741


“I hear a wind
Whistling air
In my ear”

“Roam” by The B-52s

Surrounded by majestic Ponderosa Pine; sailing upon a one-track trail and the breeze whispers into ears a blessed silence.  Welcome to mountain biking in the Abajo Mountains with Roam Industries.  Opening its doors July 2018, owners Dustin and Natalie Randall, enjoy the great outdoors of San Juan County.  They wanted to bring mountain biking, hiking and winter sports to visitors, and locals, of this vast area. 

When it comes to mountain biking, Roam Industries became the organizers and hosts of the Abajo Enduro.  A yearly mountain biking fest which has grown to a 2-day, 3-State event, and has sold out the past two years.  What started out, as a handful of friends, to ride and have friendly competition, is now a full on event, maximum participation of 50 riders!  

“…dancing down those dirty and dusty trails
Take it hip to hip, rocket through the wilderness”

“Roam” by The B-52s

Mountain biking, as well as hiking and climbing, tours are offered during the spring to fall months.  Tours are initially 1-3 days of exploring various sections of San Juan County. Climbing is mainly in the Indian Creek Valley, or what is now part of the Bears Ears National Monument. 

Roam Industries offers the service of a mobile tiny home; sleeping 7 and room for supplies; it is camping with the comfort of home.  Currently the tiny home is up at Buckboard National Forest Campground.  Sports of shoe shoeing and cross country skiing are a major draw during the winter months.  Natalie Randall helped develop the trails that extend from the Dalton Springs and Buckboard campgrounds.  Through her grant writing, Monticello has been able to expand other trails as well for biking and walking.  A hut system, throughout San Juan County, is now in the works.

Do not think cross country skiing is your sport of choice?  Dustin Randall states, “It takes about one season to learn, and become proficient, on the skis.  After that though, you will love it!”

Another benefit of visiting Roam Industries is their self-serve snack bar and relaxed seating section.  Delicious scones of Lemon Rosemary, Pumpkin, Coconut, Ginger Apricot and more are the creations of home baker, Hannah Plemons.  Crisp around the edges, tender and fluffy inside, the fruity to savory concoctions are pleasing to the taste buds.  Along with coffees, teas, water, the scones are an indulgent start to the day’s event, or a relaxing finish.  Hannah’s scones are available Monday and Wednesday at 1pm, and they are gone in the blink of an eye!

While Roam Industries did have some success with a connection with Airbnb, it is mainly word of mouth that sustains this business.  Repeat customers and great reviews feed the trickle down effects to the City of Monticello.  Hotels, restaurants, and shops benefit from the influx of visitors, their families that come along, and the friends that decide to have their own Roam adventures.  What better way is there, for economic sustainability, and development, then to have local businesses holding hands, with each other, in camaraderie?

Current winter hours are Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 1pm-6pm.  Once spring’s warm fingers begin to caress the land, more adventurous opportunities will become available.  With the summer months, family reunions are always looking for activities; how about a group tour with Roam Industries? 

“Roam if you want to
Roam around the world
Roam if you want to”

“Roam” by The B-52s

Mary Cokenour

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

A Sweeter New Year

Happy New Year Everyone!  It is 2020 and jokes about our vision are bandied about.  At the time I am writing this article, it is still 2019.  Unease has not only hit our vast corner of Utah, but the entire United States is facing chaos.  Impeachment looms on the horizon, maybe, for our current President, Donald Trump.  Politicians in Washington, DC, are against term limits, so it seems the ones making a mockery of our rights; well we are kind of stuck with them for now.  In our county, taxes are going up, economic development is being kept at bay, and everyone notices the underlying racial tension.

Took one of those silly Facebook tests, one on focus for 2020.  The three words that I noticed immediately were: Happiness, Energy and Powerful.  Wow…wow!  At a time when happiness is a minor commodity, grabbing, and holding, onto it makes perfect sense.  Energy, depression saps energy, and who is not depressed over our current state of affairs!?!  Again, grab, and hold, onto your inner energy; make yourself shine with it!  Powerful, how can anyone feel empowered when every Tom, Dick and Harry seems to want to own, and run, your life!?  Stand up straight and tall, and say, “No way!  I refuse to give my power to anyone.  I refuse to have anyone dominate me with their power.”  Seems easier to say than do, but not if you believe in yourself, and you surround yourself with others of a positive attitude.  Personal empowerment can be achieved by acknowledging a fear, then conquering it.  Fear, indeed, is the mind killer.  Once again, Happy New Year Everyone!

To start off the New Year, I will entertain you with a recipe that I have, myself, feared.  Cinnamon rolls are an exquisite example of comfort food.  The yeast smell from the dough assails the nostrils.  Cold winter nights outside, but cuddly warm inside wrapped in flannel blankets while a fire snap, crackles and pops in the fireplace.  Kneading the dough moves the arm and hand muscles, yet soothes them at the same time.  The soothing is due to a satisfaction of accomplishment; the yeast lived, proofed, and rose the dough.  Rolling it out, brushing sweetened, melted butter and then a savory scented layer of brown sugar and cinnamon.  Roll out the barrels…oops, Octoberfest just popped into my mind.  Rolling the dough, cutting slices that are place into buttered pans, a little more rising and then the baking begins.  Within minutes, the scent of yeasty, sweet bread is mixing with the sweet brown sugar and savory cinnamon.  The scent wafts throughout the entire home, even the noses of the pets are twitching, and they sigh in their sleep.

Picture it, the Happiness of warm memories.  The Energy which accomplishment brings overall to mind and body.  The Powerful knowledge that a fear has been conquered.  Yes, I did fear making cinnamon rolls from scratch.  I thought it would be frustrating and difficult, and I feared the failure.  Now I know better, and am so much happier for it.

I do not know what this New Year, of 2020 Vision, will bring to myself, friends, and family, to anyone really.  While I would love to see a coming together of all, for the good of all, well, human nature is unpredictable.  Personally, I believe that letting a small handful of individuals, make all the major decisions for a community, is not a working concept any longer.  It is time that all groups concerned, put on their big boy/big girl panties, and begin doing what is best for the majority.  Perhaps others will finally understand this message too, and greater, more positive changes, will develop.

Until then, make some cinnamon rolls and share them; sit down together and have calm conversations.  It is amazing, how something so small, can bring people together.

Cinnamon Rolls



2 packages active dry yeast
1 cup warm water (105-115F)
2/3 cup sugar plus 1 tsp
1 cup warm milk
2/3 cup butter, softened
2 tsp salt
2 eggs, slightly beaten
7 cups flour


1 cup melted butter, divided in half
2 cups brown sugar, divided in half
3 ½ Tbsp. cinnamon


2/3 cup melted butter
4 cups powdered sugar
2 tsp vanilla
6 Tbsp. hot water

Cream Cheese Frosting:

2 packages (8 oz.) cream cheese, softened
1 cup butter, softened
3 tsp vanilla
6 cups confectioner's sugar
2 Tbsp. warm milk


For the Dough:

In a small bowl, mix together yeast, warm water and one teaspoon sugar; set aside. Yeast will be ready when bubbles begin forming.

In a large bowl, beat together thoroughly 2/3 cup sugar, milk, butter, salt and eggs; mix yeast mixture. Add 4 cups of flour, beat until smooth; add in remaining flour one cup at a time, until dough is slightly stiff, but still sticky. Turn out onto a well-floured board; knead 5-10 minutes. Place in well-buttered glass or plastic bowl, cover with a clean linen towel and let rise in warm place until doubled in size, about 1 to 1-1/2 hours. When doubled, punch down dough and let rest 5 minutes; roll out on floured board into a 15x20" rectangle.

For the Filling:

Spread dough with 1/2 cup melted butter. Mix together 1-1/2 cups brown sugar and cinnamon; sprinkle over buttered dough. Roll up jellyroll style, pinching edge together to seal. Cut into 16-18 slices.

Brush bottom and sides of a 13x9 inch baking pan and a 9 inch square or round pan (6 slices per pan) with remaining melted butter; sprinkle with remaining brown sugar. Place cinnamon roll slices close together in pans. Let rise in warm place until dough is doubled in size, about 1 hour.

Preheat oven to 350F; 25-30 minutes, or until rolls are golden brown. Allow rolls to cool slightly before glazing or frosting.

For the Glaze:

In medium bowl, mix melted butter, powdered sugar and vanilla; add hot water one tablespoon at a time until glaze reaches desired thickness.  Add more water if necessary.

For the Frosting:

In a large bowl, beat together all ingredients on medium speed until smooth and creamy.

Makes 16-18 rolls.

Mary Cokenour 

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Playing with Pumpkin.

I have often wondered why pumpkin was so important for the fall and winter holidays.  Of all the squash varieties available, why this particular species?  Let’s do a bit of time travel to 7000 BCE, and a favorite winter vacation spot, Mesoamerica aka Mexico.  The Native tribes lived off the land; growing, harvesting, collecting seeds to plant for new growth and harvest.  One method used necessitated a water source, The Three Sisters of squash, beans and corn.  This method allowed each crop to help each other while growing along a river bed.  Vines of beans created a trellis upon the corn, and added nitrogen into the soil.  The trellis provided shade for the pumpkin while the pumpkin vines helped the shallow roots of corn stay stable in wind.  The corn stalks would allow the beans and pumpkins to lift off the ground slightly, so wet ground would keep them from rotting. 

Pumpkin was not so named until Europeans began exploring Mexico.  The name of this squash comes from the Greek word Pep├Án which means “Large Melon.” The French took this word for themselves as well, the English were good with it too.  American English though had to have its own pronunciation, and "Pumpkin" was formed.  Even back in the 16th and 17th centuries, settlers of North America were having fun with phonics!

Squash, including pumpkins, is normally a fall weather crop.  The large orange pumpkins are often emptied of pulp and seed, a face carved in the hard shell, and a candle placed inside.  Now do you know why?  Jack O’ Lanterns are based upon an Irish myth.  Stingy Jack drank with the devil twice, but tricked him both times, so Jack did not end up paying.  Jack’s luck ran out though; he died and heaven refused him entrance due to his track record of bad deeds.  Down to hell he fell, but the devil held a grudge and would not allow Jack admittance as well.  However, the devil gave Jack a burning ember, so his spirit could walk the earth forever, and have something to light his way.  Jack carved out a potato, placed the ember inside, and became known as Jack of the Lantern. 

While pumpkin seeds can be roasted and salted for a tasty snack, the pulp is often used to make baked goods and soups.  Americans love this squash so much, they extend its use into the next fall holiday, Thanksgiving; then into winter with Yule and Christmas.  Thankfully, due to home canning, and the aluminum can industry, pure pumpkin is available year round!  Now to my playing with pumpkin, and the goodies I enjoy baking, and most of all, eating.

Back in October 2016, my recipe for Pumpkin Bread appeared in the San Juan Record.  Since then, I have found many more uses for that recipe besides loaves of delicious cake-bread.  The same recipe can be used to make muffins!  Divide the batter into 3rds, leave one third plain; to the next 3rd, add semi-sweet chocolate chips; the last 3rd is a power punch of chopped walnuts and dried cranberries.  Want more fun?  Use enough of the batters to make 24 muffins; then put the rest into a loaf pan for an awesome mixture of pumpkin, chocolate, walnuts and cranberries.  To die for!

Here’s the basic recipe again, but need to wow the family, and guests, with a fancier treat?  Bake up Biscotti!  An Italian cookie whose name means “twice baked”, and you just have to change the basic recipe a wee bit.

Pumpkin Bread


 2 cups cooked pumpkin puree or 1 (15 oz.) can pumpkin puree
 4 eggs
 1 cup canola oil
 2/3 cup water
 3 cups sugar
 3 cups flour
 2 tsp baking soda
 1 ½ tsp salt
 1 tsp each ground cinnamon, ground nutmeg and allspice
 ½ tsp ground cloves


Preheat oven to 350; lightly butter and flour (or use baking spray) three loaf pans.

In a large bowl, mix together well the pumpkin puree, eggs, oil, water and sugar. In another bowl, sift together the flour, baking soda, salt and spices; add 1/3 of dry mixture into pumpkin mixture and mix well; repeat until all dry ingredients have been incorporated into the wet mixture. Divide batter between prepared loaf pans; use a soup ladle to get three full cups into each loaf pan.

Bake for 45-50 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted in center comes out cleanly. Let loaves cool before inverting and removing.

Makes 3 loaves.  Or makes 30 muffins which are baked for 30 minutes (use cupcake liners for easy removal from muffin tins).

Normally biscotti is twice baked to allow each slice to crisp up, making it perfect for dipping into coffee or hot chocolate.  Not everyone enjoys very crisp cookies, so the baking time can be adjusted to allow for a softer cookie.  Do not make them too soft though if intending to dip them into melted chocolate for that fancy touch.  Again, since the main ingredient is pumpkin, favorite additions of chocolate chips, dried fruit and nuts will be perfect enhancements for the biscotti.

Pumpkin Biscotti


½ cup (4 oz.) pure pumpkin
3 tsp. flour
1 tsp each ground cinnamon, ground nutmeg and allspice
 ½ tsp ground cloves
4 large eggs
1 cup canola oil
¾ cup sugar
3 cups flour
2 tsp. baking powder

Additions, if desired: ½ cup chocolate chips, ½ cup chopped walnuts or pistachios, ½ cup dried cranberries, or go wild and add ¼ cup of two or three.


Preheat oven to 350F; line baking sheets with parchment paper.

In a small bowl, mix together pumpkin, 3 tsp. flour, spices; set aside.

In a large bowl, mix together eggs, oil and sugar.  Add pumpkin mixture from small bowl, and mix well.  Slowly add in 3 cups flour and baking powder.  If dough is very sticky, add in flour, teaspoon at a time, until it no longer sticks to the hands or bowl.

Remove from bowl to floured board, lightly work in additions (chips, nuts, fruits).  

Divide into 3rds, roll into flattened logs and place on parchment paper; score logs into 8 to 10 pieces.  Bake for 25-30 minutes, bottom will be slightly browned.  

Remove logs to cutting board to cool for 5 minutes.  At score sites, cut logs into individual pieces, place back onto parchment paper, and back into oven for 10-15 minutes.  The longer in the oven, the crispier the cookies become.  

Remove cookies to cooling rack and let cool completely.

Option: After cooling, drizzle, or dip into, melted white chocolate for a lovely contrast of color.

Makes 24 to 30 cookies.  Store in glass or metal containers, in a cool area, to allow cookies to keep their crispiness.

A tin, of these pretty cookies, will make a wonderful gift.  Enjoy and happy holidays!

Mary Cokenour

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

My Version of an Olive Garden New Item.

In the area we live in, the newest Olive Garden is either in Grand Junction, Colorado (2 and 1/2 hours drive northeast), or Farmington, New Mexico (2 hours southeast).  I know many people enjoy going to one of these when they're in one of those cities.  The commercials are often on television, and yes, we have gone there once in a while ourselves.

Readers of this food blog, and people who I have cooked for, know I focus mainly on Italian cuisine.  So, when I saw the latest "limited edition menu items" in a recent commercial, I had to admit that I wanted to try them.  Then I thought about the items, and realized they're pretty close to baked ziti, and another type of baked pasta casserole, I have made in the past.  In other words, I can make these new items at home, myself!  While my baked ziti and baked pasta casserole use a homemade tomato based sauce, these new dishes require an Alfredo sauce.

Now, and you know I do this, putting my own spin on a recipe is usually on my mind.  Olive Garden uses a "creamy seafood Alfredo sauce".  Well, I know how to make Alfredo sauce, and it uses loads of Parmesan cheese.  Smoked mozzarella is shredded and used as a topping.  Since this item is not easily found in any local markets, and traveling an hour away to a supermarket is time consuming, regular mozzarella will do.  However, I'm putting it into my sauce with the Parmesan; a rich cheesy sauce will be the result.   Oh, leaving out the nutmeg as black pepper and garlic will be the main seasonings. Even though I have rigatoni in the pantry, I opted to use tortellini. Not sounding even close to Olive Garden's dish?  It gets better, no spinach on hand, so using parsley instead.  Bread crumbs?  No thank you, a nice garlic bread on the side will do.

In essence, this is not a true copycat recipe.  All I did was basically look at the photo of the dish and try to figure out what was in it.  I didn't even look at the description, on the Olive Garden website, until I had completed my version.  Nope, not very close indeed, but we had a great dinner though, and much cheaper than eating out at a restaurant.  Basically, I was inspired to create.

With my dish, I used shrimp, but grilled chicken can be used for those who dislike shrimp.  For the pasta, tubular can be rigatoni, penne or ziti; cheese filled tortellini, or tortelloni, though make a prettier presentation.

Due to the options available to make this one casserole, it will simply be called, "Baked Mozzarella Casserole".

Baked Mozzarella Casserole


1 bag (12 oz.) medium sized shrimp
1 bag (16 oz.) tortellini (frozen or dried)
1 can (15.5 oz.) diced tomatoes, rinse & thoroughly drain all excess liquid
8 Tbsp. butter
8 Tbsp. all-purpose flour
6 cups hot milk
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
2 cups shredded mozzarella cheese
2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. ground black pepper
2 tsp. garlic powder
1 Tbsp. dried parsley leaves 


Fill a 3 quart pot halfway with water, place on high heat.  While waiting for water to boil, clean shrimp; remove shells and devein.  When water begins to boil, add in tortellini and cook according to package directions.  Fit a metal colander over the pot, place shrimp inside, and steam until a light pinkish coloring.  Place shrimp, drained tortellini and tomatoes into large mixing bowl.

Preheat oven to 400F; spray sides and bottom of 2 quart baking dish with nonstick cooking spray.

In another 3 quart pot,  heat the butter over medium heat until melted; gradually add the flour, stirring until smooth.  Cook, stirring constantly, until the mixture turns a golden brown color, about 6 to 7 minutes; this is the roux.

Yes!  You can make the sauce, on the stove top, right next to the pot cooking the tortellini and steaming the shrimp.

Add the hot milk to the butter mixture one cup at a time; whisk continuously to avoid burning or clumping. When mixture is completely smooth, add the Parmesan and mozzarella cheeses, whisk until smooth again; remove from heat; season with salt, black pepper and garlic powder.

Pour cheese sauce over contents in large bowl, mix thoroughly and spoon into baking dish and sprinkle with parsley.  Place dish in oven and bake for 15-20 minutes; edges around contents, and on the top will be slightly browned, and cheese bubbling.  Remove from oven and let rest for 5 minutes before serving.
Before Baking.

After 15-20 Minutes.

Makes 6 servings.

In case you're wondering, I rinse and drain the tomatoes as I don't want all that red liquid to dilute the cheese sauce, or turn it red.  The shrimp, parsley, and the tomatoes themselves should be the eye catchers throughout the white pasta and cheese sauce.

Now if shrimp isn't a favorite, grill up chicken breasts with a light seasoning of salt, black pepper and paprika; cut into bite sized pieces and add this instead.  Or choose another pasta, but make the cheese sauce as directed, add shrimp or chicken, and bake it up.

This casserole, paired with a salad and garlic bread will make a fantastic dinner for six.  With the winter holidays just around the corner, this will be a wow factor for any guests you are serving.

Happy Holidays!

Mary Cokenour

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Cake Mix Cookies Redux

I first wrote about baking cookies from cake mix on October 4, 2019, but I've since done so much of it, that I had to share the experimental results.

With the holiday season now in full swing, time to begin thinking about, and experimenting with, cookie recipes.  Each year I like to make little gift plates for those businesses I deal with often.  It is just a little thank you, and holiday cheer, to those workers dealing with all kinds of customers daily.  One advantage of being on Facebook is all the recipes, with photos, that pop up in advertising, or are shared by those on my Friends list.  One recipe I definitely decided to try out was making cookies out of cake mix; not due to being lazy, but it sounded intriguing.  Three main ingredients plus add-ins like chocolate chips, nuts, sprinkles, and dried fruits.  Too good to be true, and how tasty were the cookies really?

Asking my hubby, Roy, to pick out the flavor of the cake mix for my first attempt, he choose Red Velvet.  In case you did not know, red velvet is basically chocolate cake with a dump load of red food coloring, or beet juice.  Making the cookies using a “scratch” recipe sort of defeats the purpose of easiness though.  Looking through various recipes, I found one recipe for these cake mix cookies which claimed they were "made from scratch".  Going over the recipe, it should be renamed, "Semi-homemade", as boxed cake mix is still a main ingredient plus the addition of instant pudding.   It was a complicated, many ingredient recipe which resulted in only 20 cookies at completion.  Simply not worth my time when I was looking for fast and easy.

Here is the basic recipe for Cake Batter Cookies (using a boxed cake mix) which I found listed on the internet many, many times.

Cake Batter Cookies


1 box cake mix (15.25 oz./16.25 oz./18.25 oz.)
**oil (vegetable, canola or a blend of both)
2 eggs

** 1/3 cup is for 15.25 oz. + one ounce of flour, or 16.25 oz. total.
     1/2 cup is for 18.25 oz.

If you live in a high altitude area, like myself, add the appropriate amount of flour listed on the cake mix box.  I shifted the mix + flour, added the oil for the size mix used, and the 2 eggs; it all came together perfectly.

Additions:  1/2 cup for chips - mint, vanilla, semi-sweet, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, butterscotch, peanut butter, cinnamon or toffee.

                   1/2 cup for nuts and dried fruits; large nuts and fruits should be chopped.
                   1/4 cup for sprinkles - they are tiny, so a little will go a long way.


Preheat oven to 350F; line jelly roll pans or cookie sheets with parchment paper (keeps the cookies from sticking and burning).

In a medium bowl, mix together cake mix, oil, eggs and any additions.  I used a heavy duty rubber spatula and it blended together without any issues.  A ball of dough will form (it can be wrapped in plastic wrap, refrigerated for use after an hour, in case several different flavors are going to be baked up).

Use a teaspoon to measure out the dough, roll into a ball with fingers and place onto parchment paper.  These cookies do not spread out wide, so the dough can be pressed down slightly and a crinkle effect will be created as they bake.

Bake the cookies for 12-14 minutes, let cool slightly before removing and plating.  Sprinkle powdered sugar to enhance the crinkles, or leave as is.

Makes 3 dozen cookies if using a teaspoon to measure out.  Want larger cookies, double the teaspoon amount, or use a tablespoon to measure out the dough.  Better yet, use a 1-inch diameter ice cream scoop!

Basically, I had 3 dozen delicious red velvet cookies, with semi-sweet chocolate chips, baked and plated.  I sprinkled half with powdered sugar, and the other half were left as is.  The whole process took 45 minutes as I had only have two racks in my oven; if I had a third, the time would have been 30 minutes.

Hint:  if you cannot decide what flavors of cake mix to purchase, stock up on "White".  Then you can add cocoa powder to create chocolate; vanilla, lemon, peppermint or other flavors of extract as well.  Consider the white cake mix to be a blank canvass, you are the artist, now create!

It has been a lot of fun playing with other flavors of cake mix, and added ingredients.  Chocolate Fudge with chopped walnuts, dark chocolate and mint chips were my absolute favorite.  Roy enjoyed the Spice with chopped fresh apple, chopped walnuts and cinnamon chips. 

Chocolate Fudge with chopped walnuts, dark chocolate & mint chips.

Red Velvet with & without powdered sugar

Spice with chopped apple, chopped walnuts & cinnamon chips.

But, I had to do it, I had to see what would happen if I used a made from scratch recipe.  No, not a cake recipe; a cookie recipe that would convert the flat, crunchy cookies into thicker, cakier cookies…Chocolate Chip!  Now don’t I sound like a mad scientist working in a lab?

Taking a basic recipe for, made from scratch, chocolate chip cookies, I simply added three extra tablespoons of flour and used a Stevia baking blend instead of pure cane sugar.  Instead of spreading out flatly and becoming crisp while baking, the cookies only flattered slightly.  The bottoms were lightly crisp, but the overall texture was like any cookies that had used a boxed cake mix.  Due to the Stevia baking blend, they were not as sugary sweet, but the milk chocolate chips (instead of semi-sweet) made up for that.

Now that these experiments have been a tasty success, time to begin playing with pumpkin!

Have fun baking!

Mary Cokenour

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Sheep and Bread

Historically, the New World, or North America, was explored and “conquered”, for lack of a better word, by the countries of Europe.  While the English primarily settled within the 13 original colonies, French and Spanish explorers traveled the fringes of both the United States and Canada.  Moving inland became justified with the finding of precious minerals (gold, silver, copper); fur trapping for animal pelts to keep human bodies warm in winter and, of course, land grabbing.

With the influx of these foreigners came food items and recipes.  American cuisine essentially began as a mixture of English, French, Spanish; increasing as more countries forth wars in North America.  The Hessians were approximately 30,000 German troops, hired by the British, to help fight during the American Revolution. They were principally from the German state of Hesse-Cassel, and with them came their cultural background.  It is known that the Spanish came through San Juan County, part of the development of the Old Spanish Trail from Mexico to California.

In the 1900s, Basque immigrants traveled to the mountain regions of California, Idaho, Montana and Utah.  Descended from the first Romans who invaded the areas of Spain and France, they have their own culture, language and distinct genetic background.  The Basque are extremely family oriented, so while sheepherding was a major component of life, it was a lonely existence.  The herders spent more time with their flock, than with family.  Living in small shelters and cooking for themselves was a basic necessity for their way of life. 

“Tending their flocks in the remote Western rangelands, Basque sheepmen had to cook for themselves, and they had to make do with a minimum of portable cooking equipment.   A Dutch oven became essential for cooking hearty soups and stews — and even for baking bread. They buried the pot in a pit full of hot embers.  During the winter months, herders would live in sheep wagons, which contained a stove and an oven. They baked their own bread in a Dutch oven, buried in the coals from sagebrush or aspen wood fires, with a tight-fitting lid and a bale handle. Today the tradition continues in homes across the world recreating this wonderful bread in modern ovens. ” ~~Sunset Magazine, June 1976~~

Now, in the history of bread baking, comes that age old question, “Which came first…?”  The Native American culture and traditions have their own bread creation styles.  Pueblo bread (San Juan Record, April 5, 2016), bread products made by ancestral Native Americans used corn flour.  The introduction of wheat flour, and eventually more processed flours, came from the exploring Europeans.  So, when it came to baking techniques, recipes and what the finished bread loaves looked like; who influenced who?  I asked a few Navajo ladies about the difference between Pueblo and Sheepherder breads, and the answer was simple…sugar.  The recipes are essentially the same, except Sheepherder bread contains sugar which gives a sweeter flavor, and browner coloring.

Sheepherder Bread baked Pueblo Bread style.
Not owning a cast iron Dutch oven (bowing head in shame), one recipe I came upon stated that a modern day, stainless steel/aluminum Dutch oven would do the trick.  Oh yes it did, I was totally tricked and fooled.  My first attempt with the recipe was a disaster of sorts.  Oh, it rose up beautifully as it baked, a lovely golden brown and yeasty aroma.  Tapping on the crispy crust though, something did not sound correct; it should have had a more hollow tone.  Cutting into the huge, round loaf and to my dismay, the dough inside was mostly gooey and raw.  I put it into the oven for 20 minutes longer, but the only accomplishment was a dark brown coloring and harder crust.

First Attempt
2nd Rising in Stainless Steel Dutch Oven

After Baking

Sheepherder Bread - Dutch Oven style

Failed First Attempt, still raw dough inside.
I am telling you of my failed first attempt to prove a point, do not quit.  The secret of life is to learn something new on a daily basis.  I learned that a baking technique, hundreds of years old, cannot be simply cheated on.  Then it hit me, wait, the Puebloans did not have cast iron Dutch ovens, how did they do it!?!  I went back to the basic recipe for Pueblo Bread (remember, it is almost exactly like Sheepherder Bread), added the sugar, but divided the first rise of dough into fourths.  Giving a second rise in round, oiled cake pans, I baked them according to temperature and time instructions. 

Second Attempt
Mound of Dough

First Rising in Greased Bowl

Knead, Divide into 4 Pans

2nd Rising, Cut X into top.

Sheepherder Bread, baked Pueblo Bread style....Perfect!

What was the result?  Four beautifully browned, round loaves of Sheepherder Bread; crispy crust, light and tender inside, mild sweetness that did not interfere with any ingredients placed upon the bread.  We indulged in grilled cheese sandwiches and French toast; or simply warmed slices smeared with butter and/or jam.  Not quitting, putting thought and experience to the test, success!

French Toast

Grilled Cheese Sandwiches

With the recipe for Sheepherder Bread, there will be two sets of baking instructions.  The first set will be the traditional baking technique using a cast iron Dutch oven.  The second set will be as if making Pueblo style bread.  If you have a cast iron Dutch oven, I suggest making the bread both ways, and see which is preferred.

Sheepherder Bread


3 cups very hot water
1/2 cup shortening
1⁄2 cup sugar
2 and 1⁄2 tsp. salt
4 and 1⁄2 tsp. dry yeast
9 cups all-purpose flour, unsifted
Vegetable or olive oil

For Cast Iron Dutch Oven

In a bowl, combine water, shortening, sugar and salt.  Stir until shortening melts and cool to 110 to 115 degrees. Stir in yeast, cover and set in warm place until bubbly, about 15 minutes.

Add 5 cups flour and beat to form thick batter. Stir in enough of remaining flour (about 3 and 1/2 cups) to form stiff dough. Turn out on floured board and knead until smooth and elastic (about 10 minutes), adding flour as needed to prevent sticking.

Turn dough into greased bowl, cover and let rise in warm place until doubled, about 1 and 1/2 hours. Punch down and knead to form smooth ball, about 3-4 turns.

Grease inside of Dutch oven and inside of lid with oil. Place dough in Dutch oven and cover with lid to let rise for the third time. Let rise in warm place until dough pushes up lid about 1/2 inch (watch closely).

Bake covered with lid in 375 degree oven for 12 minutes, carefully remove lid and bake for another 30 to 35 minutes, or until loaf is golden brown and sounds hollow when tapped. Remove from oven and turn out on rack to cool.

Makes 1 loaf.

For Individual Round Pans

Same steps as Dutch oven method, except after first rising and kneading, cut dough into 4 sections.  Shape into round balls and place inside round cake pans that have been greased with oil.  Cover and let rise for 1 and ½ hours.

Preheat oven to 400F, bake for 45-50 minutes, or until loaves are golden brown and sound hollow when tapped.  Remove from oven and place loaves on rack to cool.

Makes 4 loaves.

Mary Cokenour